Cloud Interconnect for AWS Public Cloud

This guide explains how to connect Amazon Web Services (AWS) to the Cato Cloud via Cloud Interconnect.

For more information about Cloud Interconnect sites, see Getting Started with Cato Cloud Interconnect Sites.

Overview of Cloud Interconnect for AWS

Cato supports Active-Passive model only for Cloud Interconnect site with 2 circuits. BGP is used to exchange the routing information between Cato PoPs and AWS edge routers and also to determine the active acting circuit for the site.

Best Practice: Cato recommends connecting two circuits in AWS for resiliency and redundancy scenarios. Single circuit configurations are also supported.

The diagram below shows the AWS configuration for a Cloud Interconnect site.

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  • Each VPC has a Virtual Private Gateway that connects to the Direct Connect Gateway using a Virtual Private Gateway Association.

  • The Direct Connect Gateway uses a private Virtual Interface for the connection to the AWS Direct Connect location.

  • There is an AWS Direct Connect connection from the location to the customer data center partner. (such as Equinix)

Depending on the requirements for the AWS data center, it's possible to connect a Transit Gateway instead of a Virtual Private Gateway to the Direct Connect Gateway. For more information, see the AWS documentation about Transit Gateway Associations and Virtual Private Gateway Associations.

Preparing to Create a Cloud Interconnect Site

When you create an AWS Cloud Interconnect site it's necessary to configure settings for your AWS tenant and the Cato Management Application.

This article assumes that you are creating an HA Active-Passive Cloud Interconnect site. If you are creating a single circuit Cloud Interconnect site, please create only one primary Direct Connect Circuit. (Only recommended for testing purposes)

Note

Note: To deploy the Cloud Interconnect site, Cato provides a seamless configuration using some basic credentials, to create the connection with the fabric provider (e.g Equinix). If your use case is not supported through the automated configuration, contact your account representative (PS/SE/CSM) to deploy the connection manually.

For issues you encounter after deploying your Cloud Interconnect site, contact Support.

High Level Overview of Configuring a Cloud Interconnect Site

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This is a high-level overview of the process to configure Cloud Interconnect for an AWS Cato site:

  1. Send your AWS Account ID to Cato for provisioning. 

  2. In the Cato Management Application create a new site and choose site type as Cloud Interconnect.

    1. Configure /30 IP subnets for the primary and secondary circuits for the site.

    2. Configure the Bandwidth per circuit.

  3. Configure BGP between Cato and AWS:

    1. In AWS - Once provisioned, Accept the Direct Connect circuit peering and configure the same IP subnets as added to the Cato Management Application.

    2. In the Cato Management Application - Configure BGP peer settings for the primary and secondary circuits. (Cato automatically prefers the primary peer’s metrics)

  4. Connect your Direct Connect Gateway to the primary and secondary Direct Connect circuits.

  5. Test connectivity with your new site.

Below is a low-level example topology of an Amazon Web Services cloud environment connected to Cato via Cloud Interconnect.

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Configuring the Settings in the AWS Account

This section describes how to configure the settings for an AWS data center so it can connect to the Cloud Interconnect site in your Cato account.

To configure AWS Direct Connect for the Cloud Interconnect site:

  1. In AWS, accept the ordered circuits under AWS Direct Connect > Connections. (Once accepted, the connection State appears as Available)

    AWS Connections
  2. In AWS Direct Connect > Direct Connect Gateways create a new Direct Connect Gateway.

    1. Give it a Name and a private ASN value.

      This ASN will be referenced later in the Cato Management Application BGP setup as the AWS side.

      Note: This ASN has to be different than the ASN defined for your Virtual Private Gateway or Transit Gateway.

    2. Select the newly created Direct Connect Gateway and under Gateway Associations click on Associate Gateway.

      Here you can select between Virtual Private Gateway(s) or Transit Gateway(s). (Multiple associations are possible but must be of the same gateway type) Allowed Prefixes – If you’d like to customize the prefixes allowed to be advertised to Cato, list them here. Otherwise, leave this field empty.

      image6.png
  3. Attach VLAN Interfaces to your Direct Connect gateway: AWS Direct Connect > Virtual Interfaces > Create Virtual Interface.

    Here we attach the two provisioned circuits to the Direct Connect gateway.

    1. Select Private or Transit, according to your gateway type.

    2. Give a Name identifier to each Virtual Interface.

    3. In Connection, select each provisioned circuit.

    4. Direct Connect gateway - Select the DCG defined in step #2.

    5. VLAN – Define a unique VLAN for each interface.

    6. BGP ASN – This is the BGP for the Cato side. (One ASN for both circuits)

    7. Your Router Peer IP – A /30 IP representing the Cato peer per circuit

    8. Amazon Router Peer IP – An IP in the same /30 subnet as above per each circuit.

    9. BGP Authentication Key – MD5 authentication layer for each interface. AWS allows you to define the key on your own OR allow AWS to randomly generate a key for you.

    10. Jumbo MTU – Not supported.

    Note: It may take several minutes for the virtual interfaces to change from Down state to Available.

  4. Once configured, you should have a Direct Connect gateway in the following state with two Virtual Interfaces

    image7.png

Creating the Cloud Interconnect Site

In the Cato Management Application, create a new site for the Cloud Interconnect provider.

This article assumes that you are creating an HA Active-Passive Cloud Interconnect site. If you are creating a single circuit Cloud Interconnect site, please create only one primary Direct Connect Circuit. (Only recommended for testing purposes)

For an AWS Cloud Interconnect site, we recommend that you create the site at the same time that you send the initial request for provisioning. This lets you set up the Cato configuration for this site more quickly.

To create the Cloud Interconnect site:

  1. In the Cato Management Application, under Network > Sites, click New to create a new site.

  2. Select the Connection Type as Cloud Interconnect and define the settings for the site.

    image8.png
  3. Click Apply, and then click Save.

  4. Select the new site and go to Site Configuration > Cloud Interconnect and click New Connection.

    aws-cross-connect.png
    1. Under Connection Type, select Public Cloud Connection.

    2. Under Cloud Provider, select AWS Direct Connect and enter the AWS Account ID.

    3. Under Cato PoP Location, select the PoP nearest to the AWS region in which your tenant resides.

    4. Under Bandwidth, enter the value that aligns with your Cato license.

    5. Under Destination Cloud Region, select the AWS region from which the connection will be made.

    6. Under Configure Network Settings, configure the Subnet and peering private IPs.

    7. Click Apply.

      After the connection is established, navigate to the AWS console.

    8. Under AWS Direct Connect > Connection, click View Details on the connection you created, and click Approve.

      Proceed to configure the BGP connection.

      AWS-Cross-Connect-Settings.png

Defining the BGP Settings for the Site

This section explains how to define the BGP session on top of the existing private peering connection.

The Cloud Interconnect site is shown in the Connected state when at least one BGP peer is reachable, regardless of the provisioning status with your cloud provider.

BGP establishment is the sole indicator of site connectivity. BGP also allows for determining routing exchange and tunnel failover.

To configure the BGP settings for the Cloud Interconnect site:

  1. Configure the same settings in the BGP tab as in the Cloud Interconnect site configuration. For each circuit, go to Site Configuration > BGP and click New.

  2. Under ASN Settings configure the Cato ASN as the value of your choice (make sure it matches the Peer ASN previously configured on the AWS Virtual Interface configuration page)

  3. Configure the Peer ASN as Your preconfigured private ASN for AWS Direct Connect Gateway.

  4. Under IP settings configure the Peer IP. This is the same IP as configured in the Cloud Interconnect settings as Site. (This IP represents the cloud provider peer IP.)

    The Cato IP is automatically selected based on the Cloud Interconnect settings.

    image10.png
  5. Define the BGP routing policy - It is possible to manipulate the routes advertisement policy for each peer.

    We recommend that there are equal policies on both peers in a Cloud Interconnect site to avoid routing discrepancies.

  6. Define if BGP should advertise Cato as a Default Route, advertise All routes from the Cato Cloud to your cloud provider and if BGP should accept Dynamic routes received from the peer.

    image11.png
  7. Configure the Additional Settings for the BGP routes:

    1. MD5 – An additional layer of security. This field is mandatory for AWS Direct Connect.

      AWS gives you an option to generate your own MD5 value or use their autogenerated MD5 value upon creation of each Virtual Interface.

    2. Metric – Peer priority may be changed.

      The expected configuration profile is to have a better metric for the primary peer than the secondary peer.

    3. Hold time and Keepalive interval values.

    4. Track > Email Notification – Optional alerts for BGP connectivity changes.

    image12.png
  8. Click Apply, and then click Save.

    The Cloud Interconnect site is configured. Verify that the site is working correctly, see below Monitoring and Testing Connectivity for the Cloud Interconnect Site.

Sample BGP Policy for Cloud Interconnect Site

See the following example of two peers in the supported Active-Passive configuration with Cato. (Primary peer metric is 90, secondary peer metric is 100)

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 Cloud Interconnect Site Parameters

After configuring the site, the connection details are available in the Site Configuration >  Cloud Interconnect page.

Column

Description

Cloud Provider

Provides information about the provider to which you're connected, including:

  • The region

  • Account ID

  • Connection ID

Fabric Service

Provides information about the Service Provider to which you're connected, including:

  • Provider name

  • VLAN ID

  • Connection ID

  • Connection bandwidth

PoP Location

Indicates to which PoP you are connected.

Network Settings

Provides information about the connection settings behind the tunnel.

Connection Status

Provides information about each stage of the connection process.

  • Connectivity - Indicates if the connection is fully functional.

  • BGP - Indicates if there is a connection with the BGP peers. This can only occur after a connection to the Cloud Provider and Fabric Service Provider is established.

  • Cloud Provider - Indicates if a connection to the Cloud Provider is established.

  • Fabric Service Provider - Indicates if a connection to the Fabric Service Provider is established.

Connection

Click Test Connection to check the current Connection Status.

Monitoring and Testing Connectivity for the Cloud Interconnect Site

Now that the site setup is complete, let's review how the connection can be tested and monitored.

Cato provides multiple tools to help you monitor your Cloud Interconnect site and troubleshoot any potential issues, including:

Test Connectivity Tool

You can test the point-to-point Cloud Interconnect IP reachability of each circuit by using the Test Connectivity tool.

The Test Connectivity tool in Site Configuration > Cloud Interconnect sends ICMP probes from the Cato PoP IP to the site remote IP of either the primary or secondary connection.

These are the results of the ICMP probes:

  • Success - Test executed successfully

  • Error - Test was not executed. (Test timed out by the Cato PoP or unable to be executed)

  • Failed - Test performed successfully with no response from the remote peer IP

LAN Monitoring

You can use the LAN Monitoring feature to:

  • Perform continuous ICMP probing from the Cato PoP to the primary circuit remote IP.

    Note: LAN Monitoring only monitors the primary circuit for the Cloud Interconnect site.

  • Hosts liveliness state changes for instances within the Cloud Provider network.

It is possible to set custom thresholds and ICMP Intervals and define email notifications to a mailing list upon meeting these thresholds.

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This is an example of an email notification for LAN Monitoring:

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BGP Status

In Site Configuration > BGP, the Show BGP Status confirms connectivity of each circuit.

The status outputs granular information on the subnets learned, advertised and additional data on the BGP peers.

Sample of BGP status output:

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BGP Email Notifications

For each peer, we recommend configuring BGP neighbor status change notifications. Email Notifications are sent directly to an admin mailing list upon a BGP peer connection state change.

Configure email notifications in Site Configuration > BGP > BGP Neighbor > Additional Settings > Track.

Select the Frequency of alerting and Mailing List.

Cato allows for the following Frequency configuration:

  • Immediate - an email is sent to the recipients for every occurrence.

  • Hourly - an email is sent to the recipients with the first occurrence, and if there are any additional occurrences, then the next email for any additional occurrences follows after 1 hour.

  • Daily - an email is sent to the recipients with the first occurrence, and the next email follows after 24 hours (including all additional occurrences).

  • Weekly - an email is sent to the recipients with the first occurrence, and if there are any additional occurrences, then the next email for any additional occurrences follows after 1 week.

Sample BGP email notification:

BGPemail.png

Routing Table

The Monitoring > Routing Table screen shows all routes of your account including dynamic routes.

The routing table can be used to determine which tunnel, primary or secondary, is responsible for adverting these routes based on the Next Hop, PoP and Tunnel Metric.

Routes originating from BGP appear as a Dynamic routing type. Routes from the Passive circuit’s peer appear as greyed out. The point-to-point subnets of both circuits appear as a Static routing type on the routing table.

For example, the following dynamic route 172.29.0.0/24 is advertised from the New York PoP and has a metric of 5 (highest) which is the primary and currently active tunnel.

The same route is advertised by the secondary tunnel on Ashburn PoP as well with a lower metric of 10.

In case the secondary tunnel on Ashburn PoP would become the active tunnel, the routing table would adjust accordingly for this route.

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The BGP peers are Static and have their own routing table entry. This peers server as the Next Hop for the Dynamic BGP routes advertised behind them. Similarly as other routes, Metric information can be discerned to understand which peer is currently active with a higher metric and through which Cato PoP location.

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Events

In the Site Monitoring > Events screen, Cato aggregates all logged events related to the site.

Key events can be used to analyze a timeline of events such as. You can filter the relevant Events using the following event sub-types:

  • BGP Session – Notify of BGP session establishment or disconnection. An identified reason for disconnection can be inspected in the expanded event log. (Under the ‘+’ icon)

  • BGP Routing – BGP route changes such as addition or removal of new routes from the BGP peer.

  • LAN Monitoring – These events are logged as part of the LAN Monitoring setup you configured. If LAN Monitoring is not set these events would not be logged.

BGPevent.png

Site Network Analytics

Site analytics lets you monitor the site’s traffic and throughput and includes these dashboards:

  • Network Analytics – Analyze connectivity state changes, number of Flows, Hosts and Throughput.

    It is important to remember the Cloud Interconnect site connectivity is based on the BGP peers. If both BGP peers are unreachable, the site is considered Disconnected.

    xconn-mbps.png
  • Events - Site events feed.

  • Application Analytics - This dashboard dissects hosts throughput and application usage. It is possible to add filters such as IP/host, Application, Category, etc...

    AppAnalytics.png
  • Priority Analyzer - This dashboard allows analyzing QoS distribution over time. (read more about Priority Analyzer)

  • Known Hosts – A real-time dashboard for hosts behind the site. IP, OS type and Host Activity are among the data points available per host.

    knownHosts.png
  • Real Time - This dashboard allows for real-time monitoring of active hosts, throughput, top applications, active QoS and more.

    RealTime.png

Cloud Interconnect Limitations with AWS

The following is a highlight list of limitations to consider before setting up an AWS Cloud Interconnect site:

  • AWS assigns AWS router IP, Cato peer IP and MD5 key automatically. (You may opt to customize these values manually)

  • Direct Connect interfaces may receive up to 100 route advertisements over BGP. (Cato has an option for custom route summarization. If you would like to configure route summarization with BGP, please contact Cato Support.

    You may read more on AWS’s official Direct Connect documentation.

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